“Everything in moderation.”

“Everything in moderation.” That’s a phrase with which I grew up, most often attributed to my Mom. My brothers and I would want to sit for hours and play video games, but when Mom told us to turn it off and go outside to play, she’d say, “It is fun to play those, but everything in moderation. You can’t play them all day!” We’d want to raid the cookie jar, and somehow she’d always catch us before we had eaten too many. Again, there was that phrase, “Everything in moderation. Too many of those will ruin your appetite for dinner!”

I look back now, and not only am I appreciative to her for teaching us the lesson of moderation, but I also appreciate it because it applies to many other areas of my life, including teaching. A specific part of teaching that I feel needs moderation is lecturing one’s students.

Direction Road Arrow Traffic Sign One Way

Photo Link, Licensing

“Discourse. Soapbox. Spiel.” (Thesaurus.com, 2017)

Lecturing one’s students as a singular method of educating in the classroom is not an effective practice. According to Aleszu Bajak, journalist for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a study conducted in recent years found “that undergraduate students in classes with traditional stand-and-deliver lectures are 1.5 times more likely to fail than students in classes that use more stimulating, so-called active learning methods” (2014). As a teacher of any grade level of students, to present information solely through lecturing, you do your students a disservice, since the study mentioned above “indicates that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections” (Freeman et al., 2014) as opposed to just giving one’s “spiel” with little to no interaction within the classroom.

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Comic Source (No author listed)

Part of the reason why some students may not fare as well learning from the lecture method is that they may struggle with learning in general. As Dr. Okolo of Michigan State University writes:

In order to learn effectively from lectures, though, students must do more than pay attention.  They must engage in the cognitive processes needed to make sense of the lecture and to convert what they are learning into meaningful information that can be recalled and retrieved in the future… Add to these demands the problems often faced by students with disabilities, including memory difficulties, lack of background and vocabulary knowledge, and unfamiliarity with cognitive processes that could aid learning–and you can appreciate how difficult it can be for students to learn from one of the most commonly-used instructional practices (Okolo, 2017).

But this doesn’t mean that not all students can learn from lecturing; some students may need to employ specific strategies or tools to reap the benefits of type of teaching. For instance, all students, including those with learning disabilities, can benefit from good note taking during lectures.

(Platt, 2012)

How can teachers use moderation in this regard?

Considering the aspect of moderation may help, too. Here is one perspective on breaking up the monotony of a long, “soapbox” type of content delivery, as well as intentionally planning time for a connecting activity for the content about which you’ve just lectured.

(Let’s TEACH, 2016)

Yet another way to use lecture, but also to use other activities in order to ultimately increase student engagement and learning is Strategic Lecture. It includes lecture, as well as such activities as note taking, multimedia, and hands-on work, using formative assessment to guide a teacher’s planning and delivery (Hardin, 2013).

 

I think that all students in general education classrooms can learn from lectures. Lectures do serve a purpose, but they need to be used in moderation, and should not necessarily be completely abandoned as a teaching technique. Combining lecture and explanation with the presented knowledge put into action by your guidance of your students, and ultimately your students “taking flight” to use the knowledge you’ve given them for their own practice would be far more beneficial than merely teaching by lecture with very little student interaction. This particular model is the Gradual Release of Responsibility, but it goes far beyond “just lecturing”.

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(ASCD.org)

Rather, during the first phase of instruction given by the teacher:

… the focused instruction phase of learning provides students with information about the ways in which a skilled reader, writer, or thinker processes the information under discussion. Typically, this is done through direct explanations, modeling, or think-alouds in which the teacher demonstrates the kind of thinking required to solve a problem, understand a set of directions, or interact with a text” (Fisher & Frey, 2014).

Using this model, a teacher could begin a lesson with a lecture type of explanation, set a purpose for her students’ learning, help them to apply the knowledge in an activity, and then let them try using what they have learned on their own to exhibit what was learned by the lecture in the first place.

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She was right… Thanks, Mom! 

Again, I think of what my Mom said about using moderation. Even in the context of teaching, I think Mom was right: teachers, for the best success of all of your students, lecture in moderation! Do you agree?

References

Bajak, A. (2014, May 12). Lectures aren’t just boring, they’re Ineffective, too, study finds. Retrieved July 11, 2017, from http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/05/lectures-arent-just-boring-theyre-ineffective-too-study-finds

City of Seattle Community Tech. (2012). Teacher Helping Students Working At Computers In Classroom. Retrieved from http://www.photosforclass.com/search?text=teacher+helping+students

Direction Road Arrow Traffic Sign One Way [Photograph found in Max Pixel]. (2016). Retrieved from http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Direction-Road-Arrow-Traffic-Sign-One-Way-438122 (Originally photographed 2016)

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2014). Better Learning Through Structured Teaching: A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility, 2nd Edition. Retrieved July 13, 2017, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/113006/chapters/Learning,-or-Not-Learning,-in-School.aspx

Freeman, S., Eddy, S., McDonough, M., Smith, M., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved July 11, 2017, from http://www.pnas.org/content/111/23/8410

Great Moments in Teaching[Cartoon]. (2008). Retrieved July 12, 2017, from https://www.facebook.com/ElementsOfElementary/photos/a.343862449078841.1073741830.284303925034694/381069845358101/?type=1&theater¬if_t=like Elements of Elementary

Hardin, S. (2013). Strategic Lecture. Retrieved July 12, 2017, from http://e3t.org/e3t-lesson-design/explanation/strategic-lecture.html

Let’s TEACH. (2016, January 24). Instructional Strategies — The Ten Plus Two Teaching Method. Retrieved July 13, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2udPWz_3vg

Okolo, C., Dr. . (2017). Learning From Lectures. Retrieved July 12, 2017, from https://d2l.msu.edu/d2l/le/content/576255/viewContent/4999554/View

Platt, R. (2012, February 12). Rita on Two-Column Notes. Retrieved July 12, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CSxEGdUpY-U

The Gradual Release of Responsibility. (2017). Retrieved July 13, 2017, from http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/images/publications/books/fisher2013_fig1.1.gif

Thesaurus. (2017). Retrieved July 11, 2017, from http://www.thesaurus.com/browse/lecture?s=t

 

 

What I’m Reading This Week: New Strategies!

Hey, fellow teachers: have you ever planned and prepped what you thought was an AMAZING lesson, only to teach it and have your students not connect to it well at all? When I think back to the days when I began teaching, I tend to be critical of myself for this reason. Though I feel like I had some great lessons with good levels of engagement, I also had some lessons that were less than award winning in terms of student engagement, interaction, and concept building. When I would begin a new concept, I tried to explain it first, but I can think of several times when I turned around from lecturing and writing on the whiteboard to see the blank stares on my poor students’ faces! This is how I imagine these moments:

We’ve all had those challenging days in our classrooms, right? (Ok, hopefully, not like that example!) Looking back and sometimes even now, I realize that I needed a set of strategies that could help students at various levels of learning to get the most out of a lesson with new concepts and vocabulary.

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So, in ‘what I am reading this week’, I pose the question: what can I add to my teaching toolbox to increase student engagement and improve retention and understanding of a new concept or vocabulary for kids with a variety of gifts and challenges in learning?

One sample from what I discovered this week included a video example of * Dr. Anita Archer’s lesson for an eighth grade geometry class. She did an amazing job using explicit instruction, making me wish I’d watched this before my weaker moments beginning this profession!

After watching her lesson, I could put several key points in my teaching toolbox, and I think you might find them useful, too, fellow teachers. I loved how she included several levels of engagement, including garnering responses from the whole class, having students draw the examples of definitions on their own slates, and then having the students turn to respond or explain to pre-assigned neighbors. During these types of engagement with the information, I also appreciated her use of explicit instruction, that she ‘promoted the use of math vocabulary’ (Archer, 2017) and gave her students more accurate terminology as they were having dialogue about the material. “Students with learning difficulties and disabilities often struggle to learn these types of associations” (Okolo, 2017), so this master teacher showed me the tool of “listing critical attributes with definition… Students can then list the attributes to determine if an exemplar is an example or a non-example” (Archer 2017). Lastly, Dr. Archer also was looking for responses from her students “using examples and non-examples” of their vocabulary (Archer, 2017). Her use of explicit instruction strategies proves valuable in really ensuring both students who master the information easily and students who struggle to comprehend, remember, and apply the knowledge can engage with the new vocabulary. I feel like I can definitely apply some of these strategies when I’m explaining new concepts for reading pitches and rhythms in my music classroom, but they certainly could be used for any content you may teach.

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Maybe you’ve already used the strategies Dr. Archer presented, but if you’re like me and need more tools to ensure your students aren’t yawning from non-interactive boredom and that they are truly learning from what you are teaching, maybe you’d like to check out another resource I’m reading this week? On her website, * Cultofpedagogy.com, Jennifer Gonzalez explains her strategy of using Concept Attainment. No matter what content you teach, her great ideas could be applied to any content at any level. Gonzalez explains that instead of just giving your students the definition of a new concept, you should first give them examples and non-examples. In light of visual art instruction, “Instead of providing any terminology or any kind of definition, you could simply tell students that you’re going to study a new style. To learn the style, you’ll show them paintings that use that style, and paintings that don’t- Yes and No examples” (Gonzalez, 2013). If you’re thinking this might be just another strategy that would take extra time and thought to implement, there is research to back this one up! The author explained, “This strategy uses two (classroom practices) from that list: identifying similarities and differences… and generating and testing hypotheses” (Gonzalez, 2013). She framed it as a way to bring students into what is presented to them, almost like having to solve a mystery in their learning (Gonzalez, 2013), and I know that would intrigue my students. Bringing this element of mystery and deeper thinking and comparison into what my students are learning would be yet another great tool that I definitely plan on using.

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If you’re looking for a teaching strategy specific to vocabulary, I’m reading one more resource about growing this very tool. Todd Finley’s blog on Edutopia focuses on * 8 Strategies for Teaching Academic Language. One of my favorites that he introduces is to use summary frames. “Students read a section of text to themselves before verbally summarizing the passage to a partner” (Finley, 2014). They can use sentence frames to do this, filling in the blanks of premade sentence starters. I think this would be a great way to get my students talking about a variety of ways to learn, like listening to a piece of music, and then telling their partner about what they heard or what the composer intended to say through the music. It would be a great way to give my struggling learners a simplified path to discuss what they heard and what they thought or felt when they listened. Finley also gave the strategy to “Dynamically Introduce Academic Vocabulary” (Finley, 2014). When I read it, it seemed simple enough, but I hadn’t thought of, as he wrote, to give kids “first encounters with vocabulary sticky. Use the word in a funny or personal story. Show a short video from VocabAhead that features 300 SAT words and categories vocabulary by grade level (Finley, 2014). Just merely explaining new vocab to my students didn’t stick in their minds. If we were to use this tool, our students could relate to their own experiences and stories, giving them another pathway to put their new info to use.

Do you have other resources or tools you use in your classroom beyond what I’ve found here? If so, I’d love to hear about it! Please click the speech bubble icon to the right and leave me a comment!

References

Archer, A., Dr. (2017). Explicit Instructions | Effective and Efficient Teaching. Retrieved July 03, 2017, from http://explicitinstruction.org/video-secondary-main/secondary-video-4/

Finley, T. (2014, January 02). 8 Strategies for Teaching Academic Language. Retrieved July 03, 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/8-strategies-teaching-academic-language-todd-finley

Gonzalez, J. (2017, March 04). How to Use the Concept Attainment Strategy. Retrieved July 03, 2017, from https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/concept-attainment/

Hughes, J. (Director). (1986). Ferris Bueller’s Day Off [Video file]. USA. Retrieved July, 2017.

Okolo, C. (2017). Explicit Instruction. Retrieved July 03, 2017, from https://d2l.msu.edu/d2l/le/content/576255/viewContent/4999485/View

HLP’s: Cooperative Learning

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Photo credit: Max Pixel; Copyright Info

As a teacher, I am always looking for ways to help my students learn, whether they are gifted in my subject area of music, whether they do not prefer this special yet have an understanding and an appreciation for it, or whether they struggle to learn and perform it. I know that my colleagues who teach the core content areas feel much the same as I do. They work hard to prepare their lessons for the core subjects so that our students can stay engaged, remain interested, and will learn what is presented to them.

One valuable framework that I’ve recently learned more about is the set of High Leverage Practices, and these could be able to help support what my colleagues and I do for our students to achieve their best potential in any content area. These practices are those “that are fundamental to support… student learning, and that can be taught, learned, and implemented by those entering the profession” (Okolo, quoting Windschitl, Thompson, Braaten, & Stroupe, 2012: https://vo-general.s3.amazonaws.com/0909b782-90db-4ee8-aa57-29d7ee361600/gTwpzLeQTiiPORlXgCLo_HLPs%20Feedback%20TED%202015%20McLeskey.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ3YBR5GY2XF7YLGQ&Expires=1552052174&Signature=nf8xRTW6TKr5yrsTw3Yb62FUNI0%3D) Included in these practices is Cooperative Learning, as students learn to work together as they learn within a certain content area. This piece could prove to be very beneficial, not only for students who have challenges in learning, but also for all students in general.

Though I see the educational value in “HLP’s”, specifically in Cooperative Learning, I also see that there could be drawbacks in employing them. Given that Windschitl et al. described HLP’s as factors that new teachers will be able to implement in the classroom, I have to wonder about the training current educators would receive in this regard, and what would be expected of them. It could be difficult for some seasoned teachers to implement changes for group work, possibly having to revamp what they have been doing throughout their whole career. Barbara Levin, teacher and author of Case Studies of Teacher Development, An In-Depth Look at How Thinking About Pedagogy Develops Over Time, commented on this notion, saying some “… other teachers don’t want to change what they are doing. They say, ‘We’ve seen this before. It’s the same thing we did before. ‘Or they just [ask] why should they change to this new thing because it will just change again… Other teachers have their classrooms they way they want them and they aren’t willing to change. Change is hard…” (Levin, 2003). Though I can surely see the value in having professional development for current teachers to learn to use and implement HLP’s, I agree with Levin because it is hard to incorporate changes into what and how you may currently teach in any content area, even if the changes do have merit.

Another point that I could challenge within the premise of Cooperative Learning is how teachers may put certain learners together for the best end result. Students working together toward common goals, fulfilling various roles in a group, and offering what knowledge they have about a certain subject can grow in that knowledge and as productive members of that group. Students who may struggle can benefit from working with others, to learn from what their group members know, and also to teach others what material they have learned. Yet, as Dr. Okolo of Michigan State University pointed out, “Despite our beliefs about the benefits of working in groups for diverse learners and our commitment to collaboration among students, cooperative learning can actually disadvantage students who struggle if not implemented thoughtfully and systematically” (Okolo, 2017).

When I think of my own experiences in the classroom, both in my own content of music and also in those settings of my colleagues’ core content teaching, using group work can turn out to be amazing, but is not always easy to facilitate. Making sure that students are placed together in order to tap into their strengths can be challenging task to coordinate, especially if some of those learners struggle in that content area, or if they have particular challenges in their learning. Teachers, do you feel that using the context of Cooperative Learning would be helpful in your classroom group work? How do you construct groups for your students to get the most out of collaboration in your classroom setting?

References

Levin, B. B. (2003). Case studies of teacher development: an in-depth look at how thinking about pedagogy develops over time. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=Fg6QAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA102&lpg=PA102&dq=teachers who don%27t want to change&source=bl&ots=FRJy5Uznyv&sig=XiCtl4l30bk1HAMy9Or7XBOlsxI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjls5zmpNrUAhVD8j4KHXh6CbE4ChDoAQhbMAk#v=onepage&q=teachers%20who%20don’t%20want%20to%20change&f=false

Okolo, C. (2017, June). Cooperative Learning. Retrieved June 25, 2017, from https://d2l.msu.edu/d2l/le/content/576255/viewContent/4999489/View

Windschitl, Thompson, Braaten, & Stroupe. (2012). https://vo-general.s3.amazonaws.com/0909b782-90db-4ee8-aa57-29d7ee361600/gTwpzLeQTiiPORlXgCLo_HLPs%20Feedback%20TED%202015%20McLeskey.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ3YBR5GY2XF7YLGQ&Expires=1552052174&Signature=nf8xRTW6TKr5yrsTw3Yb62FUNI0%3D

 

Challenge

Roadblocks. Hurdles. Brick walls. Sometimes the challenges we face can have the ability to shut down our efforts to proceed. We can tend to focus on the negative, allowing challenge to cripple growth that could occur despite encouragement and proper planning with guidance to move forward toward a specific goal. As an educator, I see this within my students, particularly in those who have specific challenges in their learning, including learning disabilities. It is, of course, of vital importance to implement specific measures to help these students; another equally important key to adequate support, however, is to understand why these students encounter these challenges. This could serve as the first step to removing a roadblock for our students’ success.

One content area where students with learning disabilities may face challenge is mathematics. There are several points that can stand at the source of this. Wright wrote that mathematics learning disabilities can result as combinations of issues with language processing, problems with memory and sequencing, or visual-spatial disorientation (Wright, 1996). As my undergraduate studies in education are not centered in special education, considering Wright’s first point here, that language processing challenges can affect one’s math performance, seemed simple enough, yet profound. During my recent practicum assignment time working with students in a resource room setting, I witnessed this first hand. Several of my students who were considered to have an LD in math struggled with the meaning of their multi-step word problems. Before these students could even think about the computations needed, and even which steps to perform in order within an equation, they first had much difficulty with what the problem was even asking. I learned the importance of breaking up the roadblock they encountered, reading each sentence and helping my students to find meaning and thus the clues to begin a plan to solve the problem. This specific point is another challenge that these same individuals may face within the content of math: sequencing. An article by pbs.org (2012) stated that “a student with a deficiency in this skill may… have difficulties sequencing multiple steps…” Another challenge that my students faced during my observation of their curriculum and its implementation, the multi-step problems in their grade level’s work created hardship for them at first. I got to witness one of my mentor teacher’s solutions to this, in that she helped them to organize their thoughts or the directions given to process through them more efficiently. She likely would not have made this an option for them, however, if she did not first understand the cause of their difficulty with this part of mathematics. Lastly, one other challenge point within math can be motivation. According to Okolo (2017), “After years of failing in mathematics, middle and high school students may be, not surprising, unmotivated to study mathematics. When mathematics content is abstract and unconnected to students’ lives, as higher-level math often seems to be, students may be even less motivated to make the effort needed to improve their chances of success”. A teacher who takes this into account before instruction begins with a much-needed perspective to use in tailoring her lessons to accommodate the difficulties students with LD’s face.

The bottom line with all of these described challenges is this: that when we understand what challenged learners struggle with and why, we will be in a better position to find the best course of action for breaking through the challenges themselves. It is then that we can strategize to help these students to grow beyond the challenges that may initially hinder them from flourishing.

 

References

Okolo, C. (2017, June). Challenges in Learning Mathematics (Continued). Retrieved June 19, 2017, from https://d2l.msu.edu/d2l/le/content/576255/viewContent/4999438/View

Signs of a Math Disability. (2012, July 17). Retrieved June 19, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/parents/education/learning-disabilities/types/mathematics/signs-of-a-math-disability/

Wright, C. C. (1996). Learning Disabilities in Mathematics. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5947